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Class 9 Science improvement in food resources


Food - All living organisms need carbohydrates,fats,protiens,vitamins and minerals For their growth and development.
  •  Food provides nutrients which are required for our health and growth.
  •  Both plants and animals are sources of food.

Crop production -  Crops are cultivated by human beings for their food and fodder for cattles.

 Types of crops -

Cereals : Crops like  wheat,  rice,  maize,  barley,  oats are cereal crops.  They provide us carbohydrates.
Seeds : Edible seeds includes cereals,  pulses, oil like groundnut,  soya,  sunflower,  Rice bran,  olive,  mustard, etc. These provide us the fat.
Pulses : These include legumes such as gram,  pea,  black gram,  green gram,  lentil. Please provide us proteins.
Vegetables,  spices and fruits: These provide us Minerals and Vitamins.  
Fruits include mango, apple, banana, guava, Cherry, muskmelon, watermelon etc.
Vegetables include spinach, cauliflower, carrot, tomato etc.
Spices include turmeric, pepper, cumin seeds etc.
Fodder Crops : Berseem, oats or sudan grass are raised for the food of cattles.

Green Revolution : These are the practices which are used to increase crop production by using modern technology,  proper irrigation techniques,  improved seeds etc.

Photo Periods : These are the periods of Sunlight. Growth of the plants depend upon the duration of Sunlight.

Crop variety improvement -

  • It involves selection of a crop variety which gives good yield.
  • Crop should be selected on the basis of disease resistance,  response of fertilizers, product and high yielding capacity.
  • Hybridization is used for incorporating desirable characteristics by crossing between genetically dissimilar plants.

These are of three kinds:
Intervarietal: It is the crossing between different varieties of crops.
Inter specific: It is the crossing between different species of the same genus of a crop.
Intergeneric: It is the crossing between different genera.
Genetically modified crops: It is a way of improving crops by introducing a gene that would provide the desired characteristics.

Variety of seeds : Farmers should be provided good quality of seeds. This should be of same variety and should terminate under identical conditions.

Cultivation practices and crop yield are related to -
  •  Weather
  •  Soil quality
  •  Availability of water, rainfall
  •  Floods and droughts which are unpredictable.
  •  Diverse climate conditions.
  •  Soil salinity and tolerance of Crop variety to the soil salinity.

Variety Improvement –

Some factors for variety improvement are as follows :
Higher yield : It is done to increase crop production per hectare.
Improved quality : Baking quality is important in wheat,  protein quality in pulses,  oil quality in seeds and preserving quality in fruits and vegetables.
Biotic  resistance : Biotic factors like  insects,  diseases  decrease the crop production
Abiotic resistance : High salinity of soil,  droughts,  water logging,  heat,  cold, Frost  under different conditions are important abiotic factors. Varieties with stand to such factors stresses can improve crop production.
Change in maturity duration :
  • Shorter the duration between sowing and harvesting, more economical  is the variety as it reduces cost of production.
  • Multiple round of crops can be grown in a year.
  • Uniform maturity also helps to reduce losses during harvesting.

Wider adaptability : Crops should be able to adapt in different environmental conditions.
Desirable agronomic characteristics :
Tallness and profuse branching are desirable for fodder crops.
Dwarfness  is desirable in cereal crops, so less nutrients are consumed by crops.

Crop Production Management -

  • Economic conditions of a farmer decides the farming practices and agricultural technology to be followed by him.
  • Higher the inputs, higher the yield.
  • Purchasing power of farmer to add inputs decides the cropping system and production practices like no cost, low cost and high cost.

Nutritional Management -

It is a science which directs the link of all resources required to raise food, i.e. Crop for all living beings and their nutrients to optimal efficiency.
Nutrients:  The substances which are needed by plants for proper growth and development are called nutrients.
  • Nutrients are supplied to plants by air, water and soil.
  • There are 16 nutrients which are essential for the proper growth and development of plants.
  • Deficiency of any of these nutrients affects the biochemical processes in plants including reproduction,  growth  and susceptibility to diseases.
  • These nutrients can be supplied in the form of manure and fertilisers.
  • Air supplies carbon and oxygen.
  • Hydrogen comes from water.
  • Soil supplies remaining nutrients like N, S, P, Ca,  N etc

Macronutrients : These nutrients are needed in large amounts, Ex- nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,  calcium,  magnesium and sulphur.
Micronutrients : These nutrients are needed in small amounts, Ex - iron, manganese, Zinc, Boron, Copper, Molybdenum, Chlorine.

Manure :
  • It contains large quantity of organic matter and also supplies small amount of nutrients to the soil.
  • These are obtained from decomposition of cow dung, animals excreta and plant wastes.
  • It helps in enriching the soil with nutrients and organic matter so increasing the soil fertility.
  • It helps in improving the soil structure and water holding capacity in sandy soil.In clayey soils, it helps in drainage and in avoiding water logging.
  • It is the best way to use biological wastes which protects environment from excessive use of fertilisers.
  • It helps in recycling of waste materials and reducing the cost of production.
  • It has long term benefits.

There are different types of manure depending upon the biological material used :
Farm Yard Manure : It is formed by decomposition of animal excreta like cow dung, kitchen waste, plant remains, waste food etc.
Compost : It use livestock excreta, vegetable waste, animal waste, animal refuse, domestic waste, sewage waste, straw, etc.These are all decomposed in a pit.
Vermicompost :  it is a process and this post is prepared with the help of earthworms to speed up the process of decomposition.
Green manure :  some plants like sunhemp  are grown  and mulched by ploughing  them into the soil.  These plants turn into green manure which helps in enriching the soil with nitrogen and phosphorus.

Fertilizers: These are chemicals which supply essential plant nutrients to the plants like nitrogen, phosphorus,  potassium,  calcium.
  • These are used to ensure good vegetative growth ( leaves,  branches,  flowers),  giving rise to Healthy plants.
  • It involves high cost farming what gives better and higher yield.
  • These should be added in proper doses and at proper time by carefully observing the pre and post application. e.g.  Excessive irrigation washes away fertilizers and plants do not get it and on the top water get polluted.
  • Continuous use of fertilizers in a particular area for a long time destroys the soil fertility because organic matter is not regenerated and helpful microorganisms are destroyed.
  • These have short term benefits.

Organic farming -It is a farming method in which fertilizer,  pesticides, insecticides are not used used to minimum extent.
  • It uses maximum organic manure,  recycled from Waste  using blue green algae in the preparation of biofertilizers.
  • Neem leaves,  turmeric are used in grain storage as biopesticides with healthy cropping system like mixed cropping,  intercropping and crop rotation.
  • These cropping systems are beneficial in insect, pest and weed control besides providing nutrients.

Irrigation -
  • Most of the agricultural practices in India depend upon rain. If monsoon is good, and timely agriculture production becomes high.
  • Wells, canals, rivers, tanks, ponds, tube wells are the different sources of water.

River Lift System : The places where canal flow is irregular and slow, water is drawn from the rivers directly for supplementing irrigation in the area close to rivers.
Tanks : These are small storage reservoirs which store rain water, which can be used by small catchment area.
Rain Water Harvesting - Rain water harvesting and Water shed management involves building of small check dams which leads to increase in ground water level. The check dams stop the rain water from flowing away and thus prevents soil erosion.

Cropping Patterns - 

Different ways of growing crops which give maximum benefits are :
Mixed Cropping : It is a process of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land, e.g. Wheat + gram, wheat + mustard or groundnut + sunflower. This reduces risk and gives more benefits, if there is failure in any one of the crops, due to weak monsoon, other will survive.
Inter Cropping : It is a pattern of growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern.
  • A few rows of one crop alternate with few rows of the second crop e.g. Soyabean + maize or bajra + lobia
  • The crops are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different.
  • It prevents pests and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in the field and reduces loss of both the crops and give better results.

Crop - Rotation :The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre - planned succession is called crop - rotation.
  • Choice of crops is decided on the availability of irrigation facility and moisture.
  • Two or three crops can be grown in a year with good harvest by this process.

Crop Protection Management -

  • If the protection of crops from weeds, insects, pests and diseases is not controlled at the appropriate time then they can damage the crops to that extent that most of the crop is lost.
  • Weeds are unwanted plants which grows along with the crops and take up the nutrients and reduce the growth of crops.e.g. Gokharoo , gajar ghas, motha.
  • Weed control methods are mechanical removal, proper seed bed preparation, timely swing of crops, inter - cropping, crop - rotation.
  • Insects harm the crops and reduce the yield. Insecticides are used to destroy them.
  • Diseases in plants caused by bacteria, fungi and virus through soil, air and water reduce the quality and quantity of crops.
  • Pesticides, herbicides, fungicides are used to control diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses.
  • Excessive use of the chemicals create problems by entering animal body and by causing environmental pollution.

Storage of grains -There is a lot of loss of grains due to attack of insects, fungi, rodents, mites and bacteria in improper storage place.
  • Abiotic factors like moisture, extreme temperature in place of storage also spoils the crops.they cause degradation in quality, loss in weight, poor germinability, discolouration of the product.

Preventive Measure -

Drying : The food grains should be properly dried in the sun to remove moisture. Covers should be used if sudden rain appears.
Hygiene : No insects should be present in the produced grains. Clean warehouse or godowns should be used to store the crops. Cracks in the roofs, walls, floors must be sealed with plaster of paris or by suitable method.

Animal Husbandary - 

Animal husbandary is the branch of science that deals with studies of breeding, caring and utilising the farm animals and dairy products.
Live stock : It refers to the domestic animals which are kept for milk, ride, meat . E.g. Cattles like horse, cow, buffalo, ox, pigs, goats, sheep, elephants, camels, hens, fishes etc.
White Revolution : It is a programme which was started in India by Mr. V. Kurien to increase the production of milk in India.
Cattle Farming - Cattle farming is done for milk production and for agricultural work.Two species of cattle farming are :
Milch Animals : These are milk producing animals like cows, buffaloes, goats, camels .
Lactation Period : It is a period in which cows and buffaloes give milk after the birth of their Calf. Milk production can be increased by increasing the lactation period.
Draught animals :These animals are used for farm labour. Ex- camel, horse, elephants, Ox etc.
Indigenous ( Indian)  breeds of cow :
  • Ed Sindhi are medium sized cows with red colour.
  • Sahiwal is a large sized and heavier build cow.It shows excellent resistance to diseases.
  • Gir are medium sized cows with good milk yield.

Exotic( foreign)  breeds of cows: These are used for Cross breeding in India to get desired quality of cows, ex- jersy (Brown Swiss)
Improved breed of cows : Karan Swiss, Karan fries, frieswal  are improved breed of cows developed by NDRI, Karnal By cross breeding. They yield 2 to 3 Times more milk then a indigenous cows.

Food requirements of dairy animals :
  • Food required to support animal to live a healthy life.
  • Milk producing requirements during lactation period.
  • Animal feed includes (i) Roughage (fibre) (ii) Concentrates  (low in fibre) And high in proteins and other nutrients.
  • Cattle need balanced food containing all the nutrients and proper amount.
  • Cattle feed should also contain micronutrients which promotes the health and milk output of dairy animals.

Cattle diseases :
  • Cattle suffer from many diseases which reduces the milk production or may cause death
  • External parasites causes skin diseases
  • Internal parasites like worm effects the stomach and intestine where as fluke damages liver.
  • Bacteria and virus cause infectious diseases.
  • Vaccination of farm animals is done against measure viral and bacterial diseases.

Poultry farming :
  • It is raising  of domestic fowl  for egg production and chicken meat.
  • Improved poultry breeds are developed and formed to produce layers for eggs and broilers for meat.
  • Cross breeding between Indian( Aseel)  and foreign ( exotic leghorn)  breeds results in new varieties with the following desirable traits:

         (i)  Number and quality of chicks
         (ii)  dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick  production
         (iii) Summer adaptation capacity to high temperature
         (iv)  low maintenance requirements

Egg and broiler production :
  • Broiler chickens in vitamin supplement feed for good growth rate and  better feed efficiency. They need protein rich diet with adequate fat.
  • Care needs to be taken to avoid mortality and to maintain  feathering  quality
  • Good management practices
  • Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in house and poultry feed.
  • Prevention and control of diseases and pests.
  • The level of Vitamin A and K is kept high in poultry feeds.

Diseases :
  • These are caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites as well as by nutritional deficiencies.
  • Virus cause fowl pox
  • Bacteria causes T.B., Cholera,  diarrhoea
  • Fungi causes aspergillosis, parasites, worms, mites, lice etc.  Also cause many diseases.
  • Vaccination can prevent infectious diseases and reduce loss of poultry during outbreak of diseases.
  • Proper cleaning,  sanitation and spraying  of disinfectants at regular intervals are required.

Fish production : Fish production is the cheapest and best source of animal protein.

Types of fish production :
Finned production  (True fish production) : It is the production of finned true fish which are cartilaginous and Bony such as pomphret, Tuna, Cod, Catla, Rohu.
Unfinned production : It is the production of shell fish  such as prawns  and molluscs.

Ways of obtaining fish :
Capture fishing : It is a method of catching fishes from various water bodies in natural environment.
Culture fishing:
  • Fishes of desired variety are cultivated in a confined area with a special care to get maximum yield. This is also called aqua culture .
  • It can be done in oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds etc.

Marine fishing:
  • It includes fish production in ponds, oceans, lakes etc.
  • Popular marine fishes include Promphrets, Tuna, sardina, Bombay duck.
  • Satellites are also used to find the reason of high fish production by Echo sounds.

Inland fishing : Fish production in freshwater like ponds,  river, lakes and lagoons.

Bee – keeping -
  • Honey is widely used as it is an instant source of energy and has medicinal properties. Wax is used in cosmetics,  medicines, candle making and making of boot polish.
  • It needs low investments good returns with more field of honey and wax along with other agricultural practices like flower production.
  • The setting up of a number of beehives undesirable location in a systematic manner in that allows maximum fallen and nectar collection is called Apiary,
  • Some common Indian variety are  Apis cerana indica (Indian bee), dorsatta (rock bee), A. Florae (little bee)
  • One Itallian variety mellifer is used in India for:

        (a) High Honey collection capacity (b) Fast Reproduction (c) Less Sting (d) They stay                in beehive for a long time.

Pasturage -
  • Pasturage is the availability of flowers to bees for nectar and pollen collection.
  • It affects the quality and quantity of honey because different flora produces nectar and pollen of different types, e.g. Almond honey of Kashmir is very tasty.

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